How to Install Rust on Debian 11

Rust is an open-source systems programming language that focuses on speed, memory safety, and parallelism. Developers use Rust to create a wide range of new software applications, such as game engines, operating systems, file systems, browser components, and simulation engines for virtual reality. Rust is syntactically similar to C++ but can guarantee memory safety by using a borrow checker for validating references.

For users, especially developers wanting to try out Rust Programming language, you will know how to install Rust on Debian 11 Bullseye.

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Prerequisites

  • Recommended OS: Debian 11 Bullseye
  • User account: A user account with sudo or root access.

Update Operating System

Update your Debian operating system to make sure all existing packages are up to date:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

The tutorial will be using the sudo command and assuming you have sudo status.

To verify sudo status on your account:

sudo whoami

Example output showing sudo status:

[joshua@debian~]$ sudo whoami
root

To set up an existing or new sudo account, visit our tutorial on Adding a User to Sudoers on Debian.

To use the root account, use the following command with the root password to log in.

su

Install Dependencies

Next, install the required packages that are needed during the installation of Rust:

sudo apt install curl build-essential gcc make -y

Install Rust

Once you have completed the required installation of packages in prerequisites, you now can use (curl) to download the Rust installation script by executing the following command:

curl --proto '=https' --tlsv1.2 -sSf https://sh.rustup.rs | sh

You should see an output like the example below. Type 1 and hit Enter to continue.

Example:

How to Install Rust on Debian 11

The entire installation should take between 1 to 5 minutes, depending on your server’s internet speed and hardware. Once completed, you will see the following outcome:

How to Install Rust on Debian 11

Verify the version build of Rust installed, which in turn will show you it is successfully installed as well. Type the following command and hit enter:

rustc -V

Example output (This will change in time with newer versions):

rustc 1.54.0 (a178d0322 2021-07-26)

Note, you will need to activate the (Rust environment) for your current shell. This is done using the following command to activate the rust environment:

source ~/.profile
source ~/.cargo/env
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Create Rust Sample Project Application

So you have installed Rust and believe it should be working correctly. When installing a programming language on your operating system, the best way to verify is to create a quick test application. For the guide, you will create the famous (Hello World) output using rust.

First, you need to create a directory that will serve as a (Workspace):

mkdir ~/rust-projects

Secondly, change the directory to the Workspace and create a sample application with the following command:

cd rust-projects && nano helloworld.rs

Next, enter the following code for the hello world test:

fn main() {
    println!("Hello World, this is a test provided by LinuxCapable.com");
}

Save and close (CTRL+O) and then exit (CTRL+X) then compile the program with the following command:

rustc helloworld.rs

This will create an executable application after it has finished compiling. The application will be in your current directory as the example output below:

root@debian:~/rust-projects# ls
helloworld  helloworld.rs

To run the application you created using Rust, run the program with the execute command:

./helloworld

Example output from the test application as below:

How to Install Rust on Debian 11
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How to Update Rust

To update Rust is relatively easy and is done with a simple command in your terminal. Type in the following:

rustup update

Example output:

How to Install Rust on Debian 11

How to Remove (Uninstall) Rust

If in the future you no longer require Rust on your Debian operating system, run the following command:

rustup self uninstall

Example output:

How to Install Rust on Debian 11

To successfully remove type (Y) and press the enter key. You will then get the following output that Rust has been successfully removed from your Debian system:

Comments and Conclusion

In the tutorial, you have learned how to install Rust programming language on Debian 11 Bullseye and create a rudimentary test application.

Overall, Rust is fantastic, especially in that it guarantees memory safety. You can’t write buffer overflows, dangling pointers, or double-free bugs in Rust which, instead of C/C++, eliminate a whole class of security bugs in your software.

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