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How to Install NVIDIA 510.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Most modern Linux Desktop systems such as Debian come with an Nvidia driver pre-installed in the Nouveau open-source graphics device driver for Nvidia video cards. For the most part, this is acceptable; however, if you are using your Linux system for graphical design or gaming, you may get better drivers.

Historically, the Nouveau drivers are slower than Nvidia’s proprietary drivers, lacking the latest graphics card hardware’s latest features, software technology, and support.

Currently, NVIDIA 510 Drivers are available to install, which bring many new features and improvements to the very latest and existing supported graphic cards with better Linux Kernel support, ReBAR indicator, GBM API support, and much more.

The following tutorial will teach you to install the latest bleeding-edge 510 Nvidia Graphic Card Drivers for Debian 11 Bullseye using the command line terminal.

Update Debian

Update your system to ensure all existing packages are up to date, and this is important for kernel and graphic card driver installations.

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

Important Notice

The NVIDIA Properiarty Drivers only support X11 and not Wayland on Debian 11 Bullseye.

The NVIDIA 510 Graphic Card drivers have been officially released, the beta was 510.37.xx, and the release versions are now from 510.47.xx onwards. This tutorial uses a stock standard installation of the Debian 11 Desktop. Heavily modified systems may encounter issues that are not supported in this tutorial.

Part 1. Determine your Graphics Card

The first step for users with aging NVIDIA Graphics cards is to determine what it is and if it is supported, users with brand new cards can skip this part as no doubt they will be supported.

First, find your graphics card module.

lspci | grep -e VGA

Example output:

03:00.0 VGA compatible controller: NVIDIA Corporation TU117 [GeForce GTX 1650] (rev a1)

Next, visit the supported NVIDIA GPU 510 supported chips section and verify your card is listed before moving on. For example, the tutorial uses an older GeForce GTX 1650, which is still supported in that list.

Option 1 – Install NVIDIA Drivers with Official NVIDIA Repository

WARNING, X86_64 ARCHITECTURE IS ONLY SUPPORTED IN THIS METHOD FROM NVIDIA.

For users who do not want the work involved in compiling kernels and manually downloading every time an update occurs, an easier way to install the latest kernel available for your system is to import the NVIDIA repository directly.

This may not be suitable for some secure systems using third-party repositories. Still, the following steps will be reasonable for most daily desktop users that are into gaming especially.

First, import the GPG key.

sudo wget -O- https://developer.download.nvidia.com/compute/cuda/repos/debian11/x86_64/3bf863cc.pub | gpg --dearmor | sudo tee /usr/share/keyrings/nvidia-drivers.gpg

Second, import the repository for your Debian 11 system.

echo 'deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/nvidia-drivers.gpg] https://developer.download.nvidia.com/compute/cuda/repos/debian11/x86_64/ /' | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/nvidia-drivers.list

Enable the CONTRIB repository. Run this even if you think you have it enabled already to be safe.

sudo add-apt-repository contrib

Update your APT-CACHE.

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y

Next, install the latest NVIDIA drivers which are 510 series at the time of this tutorial, using the following command.

Install NVIDIA 510 Drivers Without Cuda Support:

sudo apt install nvidia-driver nvidia-settings nvidia-smi nvidia-xconfig nvidia-opencl-icd nvidia-opencl-common nvidia-detect linux-image-amd64 linux-headers-amd64

Install NVIDIA 510 Drivers With Cuda Support:

sudo apt install cuda nvidia-driver nvidia-settings nvidia-smi nvidia-xconfig nvidia-opencl-icd nvidia-opencl-common nvidia-detect linux-image-amd64 linux-headers-amd64 cuda

Note, that the download is large and can take a while; given this is a general release, it is recommended to install all the drivers to avoid any issues or inconsistencies on your Debian 11 desktop.

For users with pre-existing installations, you will see a prompt before the installation continues.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.39.01 Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Select Yes to remove any existing drivers, failure to do this may cause system instability. Once done, the installation will be complete.

Once the installation is complete, you will be prompted to reboot your PC to enable the NVIDIA drivers.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Reboot your system once done.

sudo reboot

Verify the installation by running NVIDIA-SMI as the manual installation steps showed beforehand.

nvidia-smi

Example output:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Install 32-bit Support for NVIDIA 510 drivers

32-bit support can be easily enabled and installed first. Install the 64-bit drivers above, then proceed with the following steps.

First, enable 32-bit architecture.

sudo dpkg --add-architecture i386

Update the APT-CACHE to reflect the changes to the architecture.

sudo apt update

Install 32-bit support NVIDIA 510 drivers packages.

sudo apt install libcuda1-i386 nvidia-driver-libs-i386

Reboot your PC.

sudo reboot

Option 2 – Install NVIDIA 510 Drivers – Manual Method

UEFI/SECURE BOOT USERS, VISIT THE DOCUMENTATION BY NVIDIA HERE FOR KERNEL MODULE SIGNING. FAILURE TO DO THIS POSSIBLY WILL BREAK YOUR OPERATING SYSTEM.

First, visit NVIDIA’s downloads page and download the latest .run file or get the link and use the wget command.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.03 Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Example command only (make sure to get the latest link):

wget https://www.nvidia.com/content/DriverDownload-March2009/includes/us/images/bttn_download.jpg

Install Linux Headers and compilation dependencies:

sudo apt install linux-headers-$(uname -r) build-essential libglvnd-dev pkg-config dkms -y

Next, blacklist the nouveau driver create a blacklist file:

sudo nano /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist-nouveau.conf

Once inside the file, add the following:

blacklist nouveau
options nouveau modeset=0

Example:

Install 510 NVIDIA Beta Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Save the file CTRL+O, then exit CTRL+X. You will then need to regenerate the kernel initramfs:

sudo update-initramfs -u

Warning, you will see a possible missing firmware message now. This is ok to ignore.

Now, reboot to the multi-user run level; this means for newer users that you will reboot your system in terminal mode entirely, forgoing any graphic UI while you install your NVIDIA drivers.

sudo systemctl set-default multi-user.target

Reboot system.

sudo reboot now

Install NVIDIA 510 Drivers

When you reboot your system, you will come to the terminal UI, log in to your account and navigate to the directory you downloaded your NVIDIA 510 .run driver package.

Next, run the following bash command to start the installation process.

Example only (your version should be different in the future):

sudo bash NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-510.{version-number}.run

Example:

sudo bash NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-510.*.run

The first installation message will allow DKMS to automatically build a new module if you install or upgrade a new module.

This is an optional choice, but it is recommended to select Yes for most users.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Next, if you want to install 32-bit compatibility, select Yes or No to proceed with the following optional prompt installation choice.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Next, you will receive another prompt asking to keep default settings for the nvidia-xconfig utility or if you would like the utility to configure the files for you automatically.

This is optional, but the recommended option for fresh installs would be Yes for unsure users.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

One last prompt will appear informing you that you have successfully installed the Nvidia Drivers package.

Select Ok to exit.

Example:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Now that the drivers are installed, you need to reboot your system but first, make sure to switch back to the graphical UI interface.

sudo systemctl set-default graphical.target

Now, reboot.

sudo reboot now

Verify NVIDIA 510 Drivers

After you log back into your system, you can view the status of the graphic card with the nvidia-smi” command.

nvidia-smi

Example output:

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Alternatively, open your Nvidia X Server GUI to confirm the driver’s build version.

Example (510.47 Example):

Install NVIDIA 510.47.xx Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye

Comments and Conclusion

Congratulations, you have installed the latest NVIDIA 510 Graphic Card Drivers on Debian 11 Bullseye Desktop. Do not forget to keep checking for updated packages through the download link as it is still in beta and has not made its way onto any repository.

Once the beta has ended, most repositories that support third-party NVIDIA proprietary drivers will feature the software. If not, you can continue to install drivers manually as you have done for the beta.



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