Otu esi etinye Nmap na Debian 11 Bullseye

Nmap, makwaara dị ka Ntanetị Ntanetị, bụ ngwa mepere emepe nke ndị nchịkwa netwọk na-eji maka nyocha maka adịghị ike n'ime netwọk ha na nchọpụta netwọk.

Nmap na-enye ohere ịchọta ngwaọrụ ndị na-agba na netwọkụ ha wee chọpụta ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na ọrụ mepere emepe nke, ọ bụrụ na ọnweghị nchekwa ma ọ bụ sie ike, nwere ike bute ndị nwere ike hacker na-erigbu ihe egwu nchekwa adịghị ike ama ama.

N'ime nkuzi a, ị ga-amụta otu esi etinye Nmap na isi ihe na Debian 11 Bullseye.

Wụnye Nmap

Site na ndabara, NMAP dị na ebe nchekwa Debian 11. Iji malite nrụnye, mebie iwu a.

sudo apt install nmap

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Otu esi etinye Nmap na Debian 11 Bullseye

Ụdị Y, pịa pịa Tinye igodo ịga n'ihu na nwụnye.

Na-esote, nyochaa nrụnye site na ịlele ụdị ma wuo ya.

nmap --version

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Otu esi etinye Nmap na Debian 11 Bullseye

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Otu esi eji nyocha Nmap

Okwu mmeghe n'iji nyocha Nmap ga-agafe ụfọdụ omume ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe. Otu Nmap si arụ ọrụ na-eji nmap yana adreesị IP ebumnuche ma ọ bụ adreesị ngalaba yana ọkọlọtọ agbakwunyere dị iche iche.

Ịdọ aka ná ntị! Ewelitela nyocha na-enweghị ikike nke onye ọbịa, ma ọ bụrụ na ịchọghị ịma na ọ dị mma mana ị nwere ike nweta nsonaazụ dabere na iwu obodo gị yana ikekwe n'ókè dị ntakịrị nwere ike ISP gị kagbuo akaụntụ gị maka omume ọjọọ ma ọ bụ ịnwe Adreesị IP gị. edebanyere aha ojii nke nwere ike bute nsogbu ọzọ.

Emebere nke a maka nchekwa nwale akụrụngwa na ọrụ nke gị, ọ bụghị maka hacking.

Nkọwa ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Nmap

Nke mbụ, tupu ịmalite, ị kwesịrị ịma ihe ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na-ekwu mgbe ị na-eji nyocha ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri Nmap.

  • mechiri - ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ebu n'obi nwere ike iru, mana ọ nweghị ngwa na-ege ntị ma ọ bụ na-anabata.
  • mepere - ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ebumnuche na-anabata TCP, UDP ma ọ bụ SCTP.
  • nzacha - Enweghị ike ikpebi ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ezubere nke ọma site na nmap imeghe ma ọ bụ mechie n'ihi nzacha ngwugwu.
  • enweghị nzacha - Enwere ike iru ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ahụ, mana enweghị ike ikpebi ma ọ bụrụ na ejiri nmap meghee ma ọ bụ mechie ya.
  • mechiri | enyochala – nmap iru ebumnuche na nmap enweghị ike ikpebi ma ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri emeghere ma ọ bụ mechie.
  • meghere|nzacha - nmap enweghị ike ikpebi ma ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri emeghere ma ọ bụ nzacha.

Nyochaa onye ọbịa

Iji nyochaa onye ọbịa. Nke a nwere ike ịbụ n'ime ma ọ bụ n'èzí, nke a bụ nhọrọ dị mma iji wụnye na ihe nkesa gị iji mee mkpochapụ maka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ọ bụla mepere emepe nke chọrọ mkpọchi ala iji nwekwuo nchebe nke usoro gị.

Ihe atụ mbụ, iji adreesị IP.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap [IP address] or [website address]

Ma ọ bụ, ka iṅomi n'ime, jiri ihe ndị a.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap localhost

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Otu esi etinye Nmap na Debian 11 Bullseye

Iji mee nyocha ngwa ngwa, ị nwere ike iji -F ọkọlọtọ.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap -F [IP address] or [website address]

Mgbe ị na-enyocha, ọ bụrụ na ị chọrọ iṅomi kpọmkwem ụsụụ ndị agha ị nwere ike ezipụta.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap [IP address],[IP address],[IP address]

N'aka nke ọzọ, ịnwere ike inyocha subnet dum ma ọ bụrụ na amaara ya.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap [IP address]/24

Nyocha sistemụ arụmọrụ

Bido nyocha sistemụ arụmọrụ nke na-agwa Nmap ka ọ nwaa wee chọpụta ihe sistemụ arụmọrụ na-arụ na sistemụ ebumnuche. Ọ bụrụ na akpọchiri adreesị ebumnuche yana ehichapụ ma ọ bụ mechie ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri, nsonaazụ ga-abụ nke a pụrụ ịdabere na ya na enweghị isi (ezigbo nsonaazụ).

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap -O --osscan-guess [IP address] or [website address]

Nkọwapụta Port na ịtụ nyocha

Bido nyocha ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri omenala, nke a nwere ike ịba uru maka ịlele ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị na-ekpuchighị na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri 1000 kacha elu maka usoro iwu ọ bụla. A na-eme nke a site n'ịgbakwunye -p ọkọlọtọ.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap –p 80,443,8080,9090 [IP address] or [website address]

Nyocha ọrụ

Bido nyocha ọrụ na-agwa Nmap ka ịlele ọrụ ndị a na-agba na ebumnuche site na nyocha ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri mepere emepe. Ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ndị a na-ejikarị eme ihe agaghị enweta ọtụtụ ozi, mana ndị ọzọ mara na ha na-eji ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri a na-ekekọrịtakarị ga-egosi nsonaazụ kacha mma ma ọ bụrụ na ha mepere emepe.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap -sV [IP address] or [website address]

Nyochaa TCP SYN

Bido nyocha TCP SYN (SYN/Jikọọ()/ACK/Ohere/Maimon). A na-akpọkarị ụdị nyocha a dị ka nyocha njikọ mepere emepe na ọ naghị emecha ya nke ọma. A na-eji usoro a maka DDoS mana n'ọtụtụ buru ibu na botnets.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo nmap -sS [IP address] or [website address]

Enyemaka Nmap

N'ozuzu, Nmap nwere ọtụtụ atụmatụ na ngwakọta. Dị ka o kwesịrị, iji mụtakwuo maka ndị a, jiri iwu na-esonụ weta ndepụta nke iwu na ọkọlọtọ nhọrọ nke enwere ike iji na nyocha gị.

sudo nmap --help

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org )
Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}
TARGET SPECIFICATION:
  Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
  Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254
  -iL <inputfilename>: Input from list of hosts/networks
  -iR <num hosts>: Choose random targets
  --exclude <host1[,host2][,host3],...>: Exclude hosts/networks
  --excludefile <exclude_file>: Exclude list from file
HOST DISCOVERY:
  -sL: List Scan - simply list targets to scan
  -sn: Ping Scan - disable port scan
  -Pn: Treat all hosts as online -- skip host discovery
  -PS/PA/PU/PY[portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK, UDP or SCTP discovery to given ports
  -PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes
  -PO[protocol list]: IP Protocol Ping
  -n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]
  --dns-servers <serv1[,serv2],...>: Specify custom DNS servers
  --system-dns: Use OS's DNS resolver
  --traceroute: Trace hop path to each host
SCAN TECHNIQUES:
  -sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans
  -sU: UDP Scan
  -sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans
  --scanflags <flags>: Customize TCP scan flags
  -sI <zombie host[:probeport]>: Idle scan
  -sY/sZ: SCTP INIT/COOKIE-ECHO scans
  -sO: IP protocol scan
  -b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan
PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:
  -p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports
    Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9
  --exclude-ports <port ranges>: Exclude the specified ports from scanning
  -F: Fast mode - Scan fewer ports than the default scan
  -r: Scan ports consecutively - don't randomize
  --top-ports <number>: Scan <number> most common ports
  --port-ratio <ratio>: Scan ports more common than <ratio>
SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:
  -sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
  --version-intensity <level>: Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)
  --version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)
  --version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)
  --version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)
SCRIPT SCAN:
  -sC: equivalent to --script=default
  --script=<Lua scripts>: <Lua scripts> is a comma separated list of
           directories, script-files or script-categories
  --script-args=<n1=v1,[n2=v2,...]>: provide arguments to scripts
  --script-args-file=filename: provide NSE script args in a file
  --script-trace: Show all data sent and received
  --script-updatedb: Update the script database.
  --script-help=<Lua scripts>: Show help about scripts.
           <Lua scripts> is a comma-separated list of script-files or
           script-categories.
OS DETECTION:
  -O: Enable OS detection
  --osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets
  --osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively
TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:
  Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append 'ms' (milliseconds),
  's' (seconds), 'm' (minutes), or 'h' (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m).
  -T<0-5>: Set timing template (higher is faster)
  --min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size>: Parallel host scan group sizes
  --min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>: Probe parallelization
  --min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>: Specifies
      probe round trip time.
  --max-retries <tries>: Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.
  --host-timeout <time>: Give up on target after this long
  --scan-delay/--max-scan-delay <time>: Adjust delay between probes
  --min-rate <number>: Send packets no slower than <number> per second
  --max-rate <number>: Send packets no faster than <number> per second
FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:
  -f; --mtu <val>: fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)
  -D <decoy1,decoy2[,ME],...>: Cloak a scan with decoys
  -S <IP_Address>: Spoof source address
  -e <iface>: Use specified interface
  -g/--source-port <portnum>: Use given port number
  --proxies <url1,[url2],...>: Relay connections through HTTP/SOCKS4 proxies
  --data <hex string>: Append a custom payload to sent packets
  --data-string <string>: Append a custom ASCII string to sent packets
  --data-length <num>: Append random data to sent packets
  --ip-options <options>: Send packets with specified ip options
  --ttl <val>: Set IP time-to-live field
  --spoof-mac <mac address/prefix/vendor name>: Spoof your MAC address
  --badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP/SCTP checksum
OUTPUT:
  -oN/-oX/-oS/-oG <file>: Output scan in normal, XML, s|<rIpt kIddi3,
     and Grepable format, respectively, to the given filename.
  -oA <basename>: Output in the three major formats at once
  -v: Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)
  -d: Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)
  --reason: Display the reason a port is in a particular state
  --open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports
  --packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received
  --iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)
  --append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files
  --resume <filename>: Resume an aborted scan
  --stylesheet <path/URL>: XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML
  --webxml: Reference stylesheet from Nmap.Org for more portable XML
  --no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output
MISC:
  -6: Enable IPv6 scanning
  -A: Enable OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute
  --datadir <dirname>: Specify custom Nmap data file location
  --send-eth/--send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets
  --privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged
  --unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges
  -V: Print version number
  -h: Print this help summary page.
EXAMPLES:
  nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org
  nmap -v -sn 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8
  nmap -v -iR 10000 -Pn -p 80
SEE THE MAN PAGE (https://nmap.org/book/man.html) FOR MORE OPTIONS AND EXAMPLES

Otu esi ewepu (wepu) Nmap

Iji wepu Nmap na sistemụ Debian 11 gị, jiri iwu na-esonụ wepụ ngwa ahụ.

sudo apt autoremove nmap --purge

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Pịnye Y, pịa pịa Tinye igodo ịga n'ihu na mwepụ nke Nmap.

Mara, nke a ga-ewepụ ndabere na-ejighị ya arụnyere n'oge ntinye mbụ nke Nmap.


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Okwu na mmechi

N'ime nkuzi a, ị mụtala ka esi etinye Nmap bụ lelee sava Debian 11 gị maka ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri/ọrụ dị iche iche mepere emepe. Nmap kwesịrị ịbụ ngwá ọrụ ị ga-eji ozugbo na ihe nkesa ọ bụla iji lelee ihe mepere emepe na-aga n'ihu, ọ nwere ike igosi nsonaazụ ozugbo mgbe ị na-enyocha localhost.

Tupu ị kpọchie ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ma ọ bụrụ na ịchọta ihe ọ bụla mepere emepe, jide n'aka na ị ga-enyocha ọrụ na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri na-emeghe na ihe ọ na-eme, aka adịghị egbochi ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri SSH ma kpọchie onwe gị ikike SSH n'ime ihe nkesa gị.

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