Otu esi arụnye Backports & Ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

A maara Debian n'etiti obodo Linux maka ọkọlọtọ ọla edo ya ka ọ kwụsie ike, na ihe ndọghachi azụ nwere ike ịbụ na ngwugwu ahụ, ọkachasị mgbe afọ mwepụta Debian ọhụrụ bụ na ha na-anọkarị n'azụ ihe dị ugbu a ka ha na-enweta naanị nchekwa na ahụhụ. mmelite ka ngwungwu kwụsie ike.

Ugbu a maka ọtụtụ gburugburu, nke a bụ ihe anabatara kpamkpam. N'agbanyeghị nke ahụ, ọ nwere ike bụrụ ihe na-akụda mmụọ maka ndị ọrụ chọrọ ụfọdụ ngwugwu ka emelite ha ka ha jiri njirimara ma ọ bụ dozie ahụhụ na-adịghị njọ ma ọ bụ nchekwa metụtara. Otú ọ dị, ihe dị ukwuu banyere Linux na iji ebe nchekwa bụ na ị nwere ike iji ihe a maara dị ka azụ azụ ma ọ bụ ebe nchekwa nnwale, nke bụ ngwugwu ewepụtara na ntọhapụ Debian na-esote, nke bụ ihe fọrọ nke nta ka ọ bụrụ ebe a na-enyocha ule ma gbanwee maka ojiji na ụlọ Debian.

Nkuzi na-esonụ ga-akụziri gị ka esi eji backports iji wụnye ma ọ bụ kwalite otu ngwugwu ma ọ bụ kwalite usoro gị dum na-ekpuchi anya. Dị ka ego, nkuzi ahụ gụnyere nhọrọ nnwale maka ndị hụrụ n'anya ibi na nsọtụ.

Prerequisites

  • OS akwadoro: Nnenna 11 Bullseye
  • Akaụntụ onye ọrụ: Akaụntụ onye ọrụ nwere sudo ihe ùgwù or ohere mgbọrọgwụ (su Command).

Na-emelite Sistemụ Ọrụ

Melite gi Debian 11 Sistemụ arụmọrụ iji hụ na ngwugwu niile dị adị adịla ugbu a:

sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade

Mgbọrọgwụ ma ọ bụ Sudo Access

Site na ndabara, mgbe ị mepụtara akaụntụ gị na mmalite na Debian ma e jiri ya tụnyere nkesa ndị ọzọ, ọ naghị enweta ọkwa sudoers ozugbo. Ị ga-enwerịrị ike ịnweta ya mgbọrọgwụ paswọọdụ iji iwu su ma ọ bụ gaa na nkuzi nkuzi anyị Otu esi etinye onye ọrụ na Sudoers na Debian.


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Tinye ebe nchekwa Backport na Debian 11

Nzọụkwụ mbụ iji wụnye ngwugwu site na ebe nchekwa backports bụ nke mbụ ịgbakwunye ha na isi mmalite.list faịlụ. Iji mee nke a, mepee ọdụ Debian gị wee mebie iwu a:

sudo nano /etc/apt/sources.list

Gaa na njedebe nke faịlụ a họọrọ ma gbakwunye ahịrị ndị a:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian bullseye-backports main contrib non-free

Ihe Nlereanya:

Otu esi arụnye Backports na ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

Chekwaa faịlụ nhazi (Ctrl+O), wee pụọ na (CTRL+X).

Iji mgbanwe ọhụrụ emelite ndepụta nchekwa, mee nke ahụ iwu mmelite dabara adaba:

sudo apt update

Nke a ga-eme ka cache ebe nchekwa nweta ume site na ngwungwu azụ azụ dị maka iji na wụnye ngwugwu ma ọ bụrụ na achọrọ ya.

Otu esi etinye ma ọ bụ kwalite na Backports

Iji backports na Debian dị nnọọ mfe; ị nwere ike ịwụnye ngwugwu ozugbo site na azụ azụ (99.99% nke oge a tụrụ aro) ma ọ bụ melite sistemụ gị niile iji jiri ngwugwu azụ azụ kacha ọhụrụ (anaghị atụ aro ya).

Wụnye ma ọ bụ kwalite ngwugwu sitere na Debian Backports

Iji wụnye ngwugwu kpọmkwem site na ebe nchekwa Debian backports, syntax ga-adị ka ịwụnye ngwugwu nkịtị ma e wezụga ịgbakwunye. -t ọkọlọtọ na ịkọwa aha bullseye-azụ azụ.

Ihe Nlereanya:

sudo apt install "package-name" -t bullseye-backports

Ihe atụ dị ndụ na-etinye Cockpit:

sudo apt install cockpit -t bullseye-backports

Ngwungwu Cockpit nkịtị sitere na ebe nchekwa Debian 11 bụ ụdị wu 239; na backports, anyị nwere ugbu a ọtụtụ ihe emelitere version na Cockpit ngwugwu na ụdị wu 251.


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Kwalite ngwugwu niile site na ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri

A naghị atụ aro nhọrọ nke abụọ n'ihi na ọ ka mma ịmara ọdụ ụgbọ mmiri ị na-etinye. Iji kwalite ngwungwu niile, mee iwu na-esonụ na njedebe gị:

sudo apt -t bullseye-backports update && sudo apt -t bullseye-backports upgrade

Ihe Nlereanya:

Otu esi arụnye Backports na ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

Iji gaa n'ihu na mmelite, ụdị Y, mgbe ahụ pịa igodo tinye ọ bụrụ na-amasị gị wụnye ngwugwu azụ azụ ndị a.

Nhọrọ - Tinye ebe nchekwa nnwale Debian

Maka ndị na-ahụ n'anya ibi na nsọtụ oche ha, ị nwere ike ịwụnye ebe nchekwa nnwale, nke nwere ike nweta mmelite kachasị na-agba ọbara site na Debian; Otú ọ dị, e kwesịghị iji nke a mee ihe ọ gwụla ma ị nọ na ule VM na-atụfu ma ọ bụ onye mmepụta / sysadmin nwere nzube chọrọ ngwugwu site na ebe nchekwa a ma ọ bụ onye ọrụ ike dị elu nke nwere ike ijikwa nsogbu ọ bụla na-ezighị ezi kemgbe mgbanwe nke mgbanwe. incompatibility bụ ukwuu elu.

Mepee gị ọzọ isi mmalite.list faịlụ nhazi, ma tinye ihe ndị a na ala n'okpuru ihe ị gbakwunyere na mbụ:

deb http://deb.debian.org/debian experimental main contrib non-free
deb-src http://deb.debian.org/debian experimental main contrib non-free

Ihe Nlereanya:

Otu esi arụnye Backports na ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

Chekwaa faịlụ nhazi (Ctrl+O), wee pụọ na (CTRL+X).

Iji mgbanwe ọhụrụ emelite ndepụta nchekwa, mee nke ahụ iwu mmelite dabara adaba:

sudo apt update

Nke a ga-eweghachite cache ebe nchekwa ahụ site na ngwungwu nnwale dị maka iji na wụnye ngwugwu ma ọ bụrụ na achọrọ ya.

Dị ka n'elu, na nkuzi na-elekwasị anya na iji backport iwu iji wụnye ngwugwu, ihe niile ị ga-eme bụ dochie backports na nnwale.

Ihe Nlereanya:

si:

sudo apt install "package-name" -t bullseye-backports

Iji:

sudo apt install "package-name" -t experimental

Cheta, kpachara anya iji ihe ọ bụla sitere na ebe nchekwa nnwale, ọkachasị na sava mmepụta ndụ ma ọ bụ gburugburu ebe obibi dị ka ịgba ọsọ WordPress CMS ma ọ bụ ihe yiri ya.

Kwalite ngwugwu niile site na nnwale

Dị ka otu ụkpụrụ ahụ kọwara maka azụ azụ, ị nwere ike kwalite ngwugwu niile n'otu oge. A naghị atụ aro nke a ma ọlị n'ihi na ọ na-eme ka ị kwalite na sistemụ Debian nnwale anaghị akwụsi ike. Otú ọ dị, maka ndị na-adịghị eme ihere:

sudo apt -t experimental update && sudo apt -t experimental upgrade

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Otu esi arụnye Backports na ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

Iji gaa n'ihu na mmelite, ụdị Y, mgbe ahụ pịa igodo tinye ọ bụrụ na-amasị gị wụnye ngwugwu azụ azụ ndị a.

Jiri kernel kacha ọhụrụ sitere na nnwale Debian

Maka ndị ọrụ na-ahụ n'anya ibi na nsọtụ, dị ka nkuzi ahụ kọwara n'elu, ugbu a, n'oge ederede, Debian Bullseye na-eji Linux kernel 5.10.x, ugbu a na ebe nchekwa Linux Kernel 5.13.x dị ugbu a. Maka ndị nwere mmasị, ị nwere ike ịkwalite dịka ndị a:

sudo apt install linux-image-amd64 -t experimental

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Otu esi arụnye Backports na ebe nchekwa nnwale na Debian 11

Dị ka ọ dị na nkwalite kernel ọ bụla, ị ga-achọ ịmalitegharị sistemụ Linux gị ka kernel ọhụrụ dị ndụ:

sudo reboot now

Ozugbo ịmechara ịmalitegharị sistemụ arụmọrụ gị, nyochaa kernel Linux ọhụrụ gị dị ka ndị a:

cat /proc/version

Ihe atụ mmepụta:

Linux version 5.13.0-trunk-amd64 (debian-kernel@lists.debian.org) (gcc-10 (Debian 10.2.1-6) 10.2.1 20210110, GNU ld (GNU Binutils for Debian) 2.37) #1 SMP Debian 5.13.12-1~exp1 (2021-08-20)

Dị ka ị na-ahụ, ị ​​na-eji Linux Kernel 5.13.0 ugbu a ma wuo ụdị 5.13.12.1 karịsịa. O yikarịrị ka kernel a anaghị akwụsi ike ma ekwesịrị iji ya ma ọ bụrụ na ị nwere ngwaike kachasị ọhụrụ chọrọ kernel emelitere maka nkwado ngwaike. Gbaa mbọ hụ na ị na-elele azụ maka mmelite kernel, n'ihi na nke a ga-agbanwe mgbe niile.


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Okwu na mmechi

N'ime nkuzi a, ị mụtala otu esi etinye ma wụnye ma ọ bụ kwalite ngwungwu site na ebe nchekwa Debian backports nwere ihe ọmụma ọzọ nke iji ebe nchekwa nnwale nke ọnụ na-agba ọbara. N'ozuzu, ebe nchekwa ndị a nwere ike ịdị mma maka imelite ya na ngwugwu kachasị ọhụrụ nwere ọtụtụ nkwalite karịa ihe dị na ebe nchekwa Debian 11, karịsịa n'oge dị ka Debian stables nwere ike ịdịru afọ na-enweghị mgbanwe dị ukwuu. Otú ọ dị, na ihe ndị dị mma, ị ghaghị ịkpachara anya; ị nwere ike imebi sistemụ gị ngwa ngwa ma, ka mma, webata okwu nchekwa ma ọ bụrụ na ị kpachapụghị anya na, nke ka mkpa, na-agbasi mbọ ike na iji ngwugwu ugbu a na iji n'ọdịnihu.

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