Ki jan yo enstale Nmap sou Debian 11 Bullseye

Nmap, ke yo rele tou Rezo Mapper, se yon zouti gratis, sous ouvè, administratè rezo yo itilize pou chèche vilnerabilite nan rezo yo ak dekouvèt rezo yo.

Nmap pèmèt yo jwenn aparèy ki kouri sou rezo yo epi dekouvri pò louvri ak sèvis ki, si yo pa an sekirite oswa fè tèt di, ka mennen nan entru potansyèl eksplwate frajilite li te ye risk sekirite.

Nan leson patikilye sa a, ou pral aprann ki jan yo enstale ak itilizasyon debaz Nmap sou Debian 11 Bullseye.

Enstale Nmap

Pa default, NMAP disponib sou depo Debian 11. Pou kòmanse enstalasyon an, egzekite lòd sa a.

sudo apt install nmap

Egzanp pwodiksyon:

Ki jan yo enstale Nmap sou Debian 11 Bullseye

Tape Y, Lè sa a, peze la ANTRE KLE kontinye ak enstalasyon an.

Apre sa, verifye enstalasyon an pa tcheke vèsyon an ak bati.

nmap --version

Egzanp pwodiksyon:

Ki jan yo enstale Nmap sou Debian 11 Bullseye

reklam


Ki jan yo sèvi ak Nmap Scanner la

Yon entwodiksyon nan sèvi ak Nmap scanner pral ale sou kèk nan aksyon ki pi souvan itilize yo. Ki jan Nmap travay se lè l sèvi avèk nmap ak adrès IP sib la oswa adrès domèn ansanm ak plizyè drapo adisyonèl.

Avètisman! Pa kòmanse analiz san pèmisyon lame a, si ou pa pran swen sa se amann men ou ka fè fas a konsekans depann sou lwa peyi w yo epi pètèt nan yon limit pi piti ta ka fè ISP ou anile kont ou pou aktivite move oswa gen adrès IP ou. lis nwa ki ka lakòz plis pwoblèm.

Sa a fèt pou tès sekirite pwòp pwopriyete w yo ak sèvis yo, pa pou Hacking.

Definisyon Nmap Port States

Premyèman, anvan ou kòmanse, ou ta dwe konnen ki sa tèminal pò a di lè w ap itilize eskanè pò Nmap la.

  • fèmen - pò a sib se rive jwenn, men pa gen okenn aplikasyon ap koute oswa aksepte.
  • louvri - pò sib la aksepte swa TCP, UDP oswa SCTP.
  • filtre - pò a sib pa ka detèmine avèk siksè pa nmap yo dwe louvri oswa fèmen akòz filtraj pake.
  • san filtre - pò a se rive jwenn, men yo pa ka detèmine si louvri oswa fèmen pa nmap.
  • fèmen|filtre – nmap atenn objektif ak nmap pa ka detèmine si pò a louvri oswa fèmen.
  • louvri|filtre - nmap pa ka detèmine si yon pò louvri oswa filtre.

Scan Host

Pou eskane yon lame. Sa a ka entèn oswa ekstèn, sa a se yon bon opsyon enstale sou sèvè ou a fè yon bale pou nenpòt ki pò lokal ouvè ki bezwen fèmen pou plis ogmante sekirite nan sistèm ou an.

Premye egzanp, lè l sèvi avèk yon adrès IP.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap [IP address] or [website address]

Oswa, pou eskane anndan an, sèvi ak sa ki annapre yo.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap localhost

Egzanp pwodiksyon:

Ki jan yo enstale Nmap sou Debian 11 Bullseye

Pou fè yon eskanè byen vit, ou ka itilize -F drapo.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap -F [IP address] or [website address]

Lè eskane, si ou vle eskane hôtes espesifik ou ka presize.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap [IP address],[IP address],[IP address]

Altènativman, ou ka eskane tout sous-rezo a si li konnen.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap [IP address]/24

Sistèm Operasyon Scan

Inisye yon eskanè sistèm operasyon ki enstwi Nmap pou eseye ak konnen ki sistèm operasyon yo kouri sou sistèm sib la. Si adrès sib la fèmen epi pò yo filtre oswa fèmen, rezilta yo pral mwens pase serye pou kareman initil (bon rezilta).

Egzanp:

sudo nmap -O --osscan-guess [IP address] or [website address]

Spesifikasyon Port ak Lòd Scan

Inisye yon eskanè pò koutim, e sa ka itil pou tcheke pò espesifik ki pa kouvri nan 1000 pò tèt yo komen pou chak pwotokòl. Sa a se fè lè w ajoute a -p drapo.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap –p 80,443,8080,9090 [IP address] or [website address]

Sèvis Scan

Inisye yon eskanè sèvis ki enstwi Nmap tcheke ki sèvis yo ap kouri sou sib la pa mennen ankèt sou pò yo louvri. Gen kèk pò souvan itilize pa pral jwenn anpil enfòmasyon, men lòt moun konnen yo sèvi ak espesifik pò pa komen yo pral montre pi bon rezilta si yo louvri.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap -sV [IP address] or [website address]

TCP SYN Scan

Inisye TCP SYN eskanè (SYN/Konekte ()/ACK/Window/Maimon). Kalite eskanè sa a souvan refere yo kòm eskanè koneksyon mwatye louvri epi li pa janm konplètman konplete. Metòd sa a itilize pou DDoS men sou yon gwo echèl ak botne.

Egzanp:

sudo nmap -sS [IP address] or [website address]

Nmap èd

An jeneral, Nmap gen anpil karakteristik ak konbinezon. Idealman, pou aprann plis sou sa yo, sèvi ak kòmandman sa a pou pote lis kòmandman ak drapo opsyonèl ki ka itilize ak analiz ou yo.

sudo nmap --help

Egzanp pwodiksyon:

Nmap 7.80 ( https://nmap.org )
Usage: nmap [Scan Type(s)] [Options] {target specification}
TARGET SPECIFICATION:
  Can pass hostnames, IP addresses, networks, etc.
  Ex: scanme.nmap.org, microsoft.com/24, 192.168.0.1; 10.0.0-255.1-254
  -iL <inputfilename>: Input from list of hosts/networks
  -iR <num hosts>: Choose random targets
  --exclude <host1[,host2][,host3],...>: Exclude hosts/networks
  --excludefile <exclude_file>: Exclude list from file
HOST DISCOVERY:
  -sL: List Scan - simply list targets to scan
  -sn: Ping Scan - disable port scan
  -Pn: Treat all hosts as online -- skip host discovery
  -PS/PA/PU/PY[portlist]: TCP SYN/ACK, UDP or SCTP discovery to given ports
  -PE/PP/PM: ICMP echo, timestamp, and netmask request discovery probes
  -PO[protocol list]: IP Protocol Ping
  -n/-R: Never do DNS resolution/Always resolve [default: sometimes]
  --dns-servers <serv1[,serv2],...>: Specify custom DNS servers
  --system-dns: Use OS's DNS resolver
  --traceroute: Trace hop path to each host
SCAN TECHNIQUES:
  -sS/sT/sA/sW/sM: TCP SYN/Connect()/ACK/Window/Maimon scans
  -sU: UDP Scan
  -sN/sF/sX: TCP Null, FIN, and Xmas scans
  --scanflags <flags>: Customize TCP scan flags
  -sI <zombie host[:probeport]>: Idle scan
  -sY/sZ: SCTP INIT/COOKIE-ECHO scans
  -sO: IP protocol scan
  -b <FTP relay host>: FTP bounce scan
PORT SPECIFICATION AND SCAN ORDER:
  -p <port ranges>: Only scan specified ports
    Ex: -p22; -p1-65535; -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080,S:9
  --exclude-ports <port ranges>: Exclude the specified ports from scanning
  -F: Fast mode - Scan fewer ports than the default scan
  -r: Scan ports consecutively - don't randomize
  --top-ports <number>: Scan <number> most common ports
  --port-ratio <ratio>: Scan ports more common than <ratio>
SERVICE/VERSION DETECTION:
  -sV: Probe open ports to determine service/version info
  --version-intensity <level>: Set from 0 (light) to 9 (try all probes)
  --version-light: Limit to most likely probes (intensity 2)
  --version-all: Try every single probe (intensity 9)
  --version-trace: Show detailed version scan activity (for debugging)
SCRIPT SCAN:
  -sC: equivalent to --script=default
  --script=<Lua scripts>: <Lua scripts> is a comma separated list of
           directories, script-files or script-categories
  --script-args=<n1=v1,[n2=v2,...]>: provide arguments to scripts
  --script-args-file=filename: provide NSE script args in a file
  --script-trace: Show all data sent and received
  --script-updatedb: Update the script database.
  --script-help=<Lua scripts>: Show help about scripts.
           <Lua scripts> is a comma-separated list of script-files or
           script-categories.
OS DETECTION:
  -O: Enable OS detection
  --osscan-limit: Limit OS detection to promising targets
  --osscan-guess: Guess OS more aggressively
TIMING AND PERFORMANCE:
  Options which take <time> are in seconds, or append 'ms' (milliseconds),
  's' (seconds), 'm' (minutes), or 'h' (hours) to the value (e.g. 30m).
  -T<0-5>: Set timing template (higher is faster)
  --min-hostgroup/max-hostgroup <size>: Parallel host scan group sizes
  --min-parallelism/max-parallelism <numprobes>: Probe parallelization
  --min-rtt-timeout/max-rtt-timeout/initial-rtt-timeout <time>: Specifies
      probe round trip time.
  --max-retries <tries>: Caps number of port scan probe retransmissions.
  --host-timeout <time>: Give up on target after this long
  --scan-delay/--max-scan-delay <time>: Adjust delay between probes
  --min-rate <number>: Send packets no slower than <number> per second
  --max-rate <number>: Send packets no faster than <number> per second
FIREWALL/IDS EVASION AND SPOOFING:
  -f; --mtu <val>: fragment packets (optionally w/given MTU)
  -D <decoy1,decoy2[,ME],...>: Cloak a scan with decoys
  -S <IP_Address>: Spoof source address
  -e <iface>: Use specified interface
  -g/--source-port <portnum>: Use given port number
  --proxies <url1,[url2],...>: Relay connections through HTTP/SOCKS4 proxies
  --data <hex string>: Append a custom payload to sent packets
  --data-string <string>: Append a custom ASCII string to sent packets
  --data-length <num>: Append random data to sent packets
  --ip-options <options>: Send packets with specified ip options
  --ttl <val>: Set IP time-to-live field
  --spoof-mac <mac address/prefix/vendor name>: Spoof your MAC address
  --badsum: Send packets with a bogus TCP/UDP/SCTP checksum
OUTPUT:
  -oN/-oX/-oS/-oG <file>: Output scan in normal, XML, s|<rIpt kIddi3,
     and Grepable format, respectively, to the given filename.
  -oA <basename>: Output in the three major formats at once
  -v: Increase verbosity level (use -vv or more for greater effect)
  -d: Increase debugging level (use -dd or more for greater effect)
  --reason: Display the reason a port is in a particular state
  --open: Only show open (or possibly open) ports
  --packet-trace: Show all packets sent and received
  --iflist: Print host interfaces and routes (for debugging)
  --append-output: Append to rather than clobber specified output files
  --resume <filename>: Resume an aborted scan
  --stylesheet <path/URL>: XSL stylesheet to transform XML output to HTML
  --webxml: Reference stylesheet from Nmap.Org for more portable XML
  --no-stylesheet: Prevent associating of XSL stylesheet w/XML output
MISC:
  -6: Enable IPv6 scanning
  -A: Enable OS detection, version detection, script scanning, and traceroute
  --datadir <dirname>: Specify custom Nmap data file location
  --send-eth/--send-ip: Send using raw ethernet frames or IP packets
  --privileged: Assume that the user is fully privileged
  --unprivileged: Assume the user lacks raw socket privileges
  -V: Print version number
  -h: Print this help summary page.
EXAMPLES:
  nmap -v -A scanme.nmap.org
  nmap -v -sn 192.168.0.0/16 10.0.0.0/8
  nmap -v -iR 10000 -Pn -p 80
SEE THE MAN PAGE (https://nmap.org/book/man.html) FOR MORE OPTIONS AND EXAMPLES

Ki jan yo retire (désinstaller) Nmap

Pou retire Nmap nan sistèm Debian 11 ou a, sèvi ak lòd sa a pou retire aplikasyon an.

sudo apt autoremove nmap --purge

Egzanp pwodiksyon:

Tape Y, Lè sa a, peze la ANTRE KLE kontinye ak retire Nmap la.

Remake byen, sa a pral retire depandans ki pa itilize yo ki te enstale tou pandan premye enstalasyon Nmap la.


reklam


Kòmantè ak konklizyon

Nan leson patikilye a, ou te aprann ki jan yo enstale Nmap yo tcheke sèvè Debian 11 ou a pou plizyè pò / sèvis ouvè. Nmap ta dwe yon zouti pou itilize imedyatman sou nenpòt sèvè pou tcheke sa ki egzakteman louvri epi k ap pase, li ka imedyatman montre rezilta lè w ap tcheke localhost.

Anvan fèmen pò yo si ou dekouvri nenpòt ki louvri, asire w ke ou fè rechèch sou sèvis la ak pò ki louvri ak sa li fè, aka pa bloke pò SSH ak fèmen tèt ou kapasite nan SSH nan sèvè ou a.

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