GIT is a free and open-source version control system that can efficiently manage small projects or huge ones. It enables multiple developers to work together on nonlinear development, as it tracks changes in source code for each branch of our project’s history. Hence, we never lose anything by going back through old stages if something goes wrong!
In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install the latest or upgrade GIT on Ubuntu 22.04 Jammy Jellyfish using the GIT Maintainers PPA.
Table of Contents
First, update your system to ensure all existing packages are up to date.
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y
Check Git Version
First, check to see if the git version is installed on your system; you may not even have it installed, but if you do find out the version, with the following command.
Import GIT-CORE PPA
Next, we will add a custom PPA GIT Core maintained by the Ubuntu Git Mainters team for the latest stable version.
sudo add-apt-repository ppa:git-core/ppa -y
This PPA has the most up-to-date packages for GIT, so you should always be up-to-date with the latest versions of GIT when they hit the git-core PPA.
Next, run an APT update to sync the new addition.
sudo apt update
Depending on if you have GIT already installed, you would have noticed a few packages available to upgrade after adding the git-core; you can upgrade or use the installation command if you do not have GIT present.
sudo apt upgrade -y
sudo apt install git -y
Once done, check the version to see your new Git version.
With the tutorial, the original version was v2.34.1, and the new version was 2.35.1 at the time of the creation of the tutorial. Furthermore, any further updates will be automatically downloaded and installed with the new PPA repository added.
GIT Configuration & Setup
The following parts will cover some typical setups and commands that are used daily by users of GIT.
GIT Add user
After installation, you will need to set up standard settings such as names and e-mails, mainly around git commit messages. This is pretty straightforward, as the tutorial will explain below.
The first step is to provide your name that will be set Globally:
git config --global user.name "YOUR NAME"
Next, select your e-mail; this can be fake if you prefer.
git config --global user.email "YOUR EMAIL"
GIT Create Directory
First, create the directory for users who want to make a new directory strictly for GIT.
mkdir example-directory -p
Next, navigate to the directory.
cd example-directory -p
The next task is to use the initialization command, and this will create a hidden .git directory to store the configuration, history, and so on.
You will see a terminal output stating the status of the directory being initialized, and you can additionally see the content using the following command.
ls -a .git
Print GIT CONFIG Details
To confirm GIT config users and details, use the config –list command
git config --list
Unless specified, Git stores details in the ~/.gitconfig file. You can review what is currently stored by using the cat command.
Note using the sudo command with the git config command will set two separate user names and e-mails.
Store GIT Credentials
For users who want to keep authorization details stored, you can enable the credential helper cache using the following.
git config --global credential.helper cache
If you must use credential helper, it is advised to cache only for a limited time for increased security. For example, you will be working today using GIT for 1 to 4 hours but won’t be touching it for maybe a few weeks, then set the expiry for 5 hours as follows.
git config --global credential.helper "cache --timeout=18000"
After 5 hours, the credentials will be deleted, and this secures your GIT.
Check Directory GIT Status
To view the status of a GIT repository, you can use the following git status command.
While the above command helps with giving a status of the GIT, you can additionally list all git commands and sub.
Connect Remote GIT Repository
Users that need to work with GIT remotes to sync and download/upload changes, you will need to link the GIT. This can be done using the git remote command as follows.
git remote add origin remote-repository-link
Commit GIT Changes
When you have completed changes in your GIT directory and would like to SYNC it to push to the remote repository, use the following git commit command.
git commit -m "git message changelog"
Note the -m “git message change” is the message that appears in the changelog.
Push GIT Changes
To push or send changes to the remote repository to SYNC in both versions, use the following
git push origin master
Pull GIT Changes
Alternatively, to pull or get changes from the remote repository to SYNC in both versions, use the following git push command.
git pull origin master
How to Update/Upgrade GIT
For updates to GIT, they will be included with your standard system packages as you installed git-core with the APT package manager. Use the following command to update and upgrade.
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade
How to Remove (Uninstall) GIT
For users that no longer want GIT installed or would instead roll back to the default packages present in Ubuntu’s repository, first use the following command to remove git.
sudo apt autoremove git -y
Next, remove the PPA using the same command as adding the PPA but with the –remove flag.
sudo add-apt-repository --remove ppa:git-core/ppa -y
Comments and Conclusion
If you are a web server administrator, learning to use GIT is what you should do. It can make your job a lot easier and help speed up the development process. While Git may be difficult to learn at first, it is well worth the investment.