MariaDB is one of the most popular open-source databases next to its originator MySQL. The original creators of MySQL developed MariaDB in response to fears that MySQL would suddenly become a paid service due to Oracle acquiring it in 2010. With its history of doing similar tactics, the developers behind MariaDB have promised to keep it open source and free from such fears as what has happened to MySQL.
MariaDB has become just as popular as MySQL with developers, with advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, faster cache/indexes, storage engines, and features/extensions that you won’t find in MySQL.
In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install or upgrade MariaDB on Ubuntu 22.04 LTS Jammy Jellyfish using the command line terminal with some tips on how to secure with running the MariaDB security script.
Table of Contents
First, update your system to ensure all existing packages are up to date to avoid any conflicts.
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y
MariaDB is available on the standard Ubuntu 22.04 LTS repository. This is the ideal version you want to install with the following command in most cases.
sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client -y
Confirm the installation of MariaDB by checking the version and build:
Enable MariaDB Service
Now you have installed MariaDB, and you can verify the status of the database software by using the following systemctl command:
systemctl status mariadb
By default, you will find MariaDB status to be activated. If not, start MariaDB, and use the following command.
sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo systemctl stop mariadb
Enable MariaDB on system startup
sudo systemctl enable mariadb
Disable MariaDB on system startup
sudo systemctl disable mariadb
Restart the MariaDB service
sudo systemctl restart mariadb
Run MariaDB Security Script
When installing MariaDB fresh, default settings are considered weak by most standards and cause concern for potentially allowing intrusion or exploiting hackers. A solution is to run the installation security script with the MariaDB installation.
First, use the following command to launch the (mysql_secure_installation).
Next, follow below:
- Setting the password for root accounts.
- Removing root accounts that are accessible from outside the localhost.
- Removing anonymous-user accounts.
- Removing the test database, which anonymous users can access by default.
Note that you use (Y) to remove everything.
[joshua@ubuntu-22-04 ~]$ sudo mariadb-secure-installation NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. Enabled successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Change the root password? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. New password: Re-enter new password: Password updated successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MariaDB!
Run MariaDB Database Tables Upgrade Tool
For users who have upgraded from a previous version of MariaDB, you should use the following steps and run the tool designed to check your tables and fix any issues with the version upgrade.
Run the following command to begin the upgrade, or check that your database tables are ok.
Remove (Uninstall) MariaDB
If you no longer wish to use MariaDB and want to remove it in full, execute the following command:
sudo apt autoremove mariadb-server mariadb-client --purge -y
Note that this will remove MariaDB altogether, including all database data.
Comments and Conclusion
MariaDB intends to maintain high compatibility with MySQL, allowing it, in many cases, to function as a drop-in replacement for MySQL. With library binary parity and exact matching with MySQL APIs and commands, businesses can upgrade without worrying about the implications on their applications or data. If you are looking for a reliable database solution that will not require costly rewrites or disruptions to your business-critical processes, MariaDB may be the right choice.