MariaDB is one of the most popular open-source databases next to its originator MySQL. The original creators of MySQL developed MariaDB in response to fears that MySQL would suddenly become a paid service due to Oracle acquiring it in 2010. With its history of doing similar tactics, the developers behind MariaDB have promised to keep it open source and free from such fears as what has happened to MySQL.
MariaDB has become just as popular as MySQL with developers, with advanced clustering with Galera Cluster 4, faster cache/indexes, storage engines, and features/extensions that you won’t find in MySQL.
In the following tutorial, you will learn how to install or upgrade MariaDB 10.9 on Debian 11 Bullseye using the command line terminal and some tips on how to upgrade your existing database if needed one exists.
Table of Contents
First, update your system to ensure all existing packages are up to date.
sudo apt update && sudo apt upgrade -y
The first step is to install the dependencies needed for the installation with the following command.
sudo apt-get install wget software-properties-common dirmngr ca-certificates apt-transport-https debian-keyring -y
Import MariaDB 10.9 GPG Key & Repository
MariaDB 10.9 is unavailable on Debian 11 bullseye but can be imported directly from MariaDB.org for supported distributions such as LTS releases.
In your terminal, use the following command to import the GPG Key.
sudo wget -O- https://mariadb.org/mariadb_release_signing_key.asc | gpg --dearmor | sudo tee /usr/share/keyrings/mariadb.gpg
Next, import the repository as follows.
echo deb [arch=amd64,arm64,ppc64el signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/mariadb.gpg] http://mirror.mariadb.org/repo/10.9/debian/ bullseye main | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mariadb.list
Next, refresh your APT repository with the following command.
sudo apt update
Install/Upgrade MariaDB 10.9
To install MariaDB, you must install the client and the server packages. This can be done as follows:
sudo apt install mariadb-server mariadb-client -y
Confirm the installation of MariaDB by checking the version and build:
Enable MariaDB 10.9 Service
Now you have installed MariaDB, and you can verify the status of the database software by using the following systemctl command.
systemctl status mariadb
By default, you will find MariaDB status to be activated. If not, start MariaDB using the following command.
sudo systemctl start mariadb
sudo systemctl stop mariadb
Enable MariaDB on system startup:
sudo systemctl enable mariadb
Disable MariaDB on system startup:
sudo systemctl disable mariadb
Restart the MariaDB service:
sudo systemctl restart mariadb
Run MariaDB 10.9 Security Script
When installing MariaDB fresh, default settings are considered weak by most standards and cause concern for potentially allowing intrusion or exploiting hackers. A solution is to run the installation security script with the MariaDB installation.
First, use the following command to launch the (mysql_secure_installation).
Next, follow below:
- Setting the password for root accounts.
- Removing root accounts that are accessible from outside the localhost.
- Removing anonymous-user accounts.
- Removing the test database, which anonymous users can access by default.
Note that you use (Y) to remove everything.
[joshua@debian-11-bullseye ~]$ sudo mariadb-secure-installation NOTE: RUNNING ALL PARTS OF THIS SCRIPT IS RECOMMENDED FOR ALL MariaDB SERVERS IN PRODUCTION USE! PLEASE READ EACH STEP CAREFULLY! In order to log into MariaDB to secure it, we'll need the current password for the root user. If you've just installed MariaDB, and haven't set the root password yet, you should just press enter here. Enter current password for root (enter for none): OK, successfully used password, moving on... Setting the root password or using the unix_socket ensures that nobody can log into the MariaDB root user without the proper authorisation. You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Switch to unix_socket authentication [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. Enabled successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! You already have your root account protected, so you can safely answer 'n'. Change the root password? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. New password: Re-enter new password: Password updated successfully! Reloading privilege tables.. ... Success! By default, a MariaDB installation has an anonymous user, allowing anyone to log into MariaDB without having to have a user account created for them. This is intended only for testing, and to make the installation go a bit smoother. You should remove them before moving into a production environment. Remove anonymous users? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! Normally, root should only be allowed to connect from 'localhost'. This ensures that someone cannot guess at the root password from the network. Disallow root login remotely? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! By default, MariaDB comes with a database named 'test' that anyone can access. This is also intended only for testing, and should be removed before moving into a production environment. Remove test database and access to it? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. - Dropping test database... ... Success! - Removing privileges on test database... ... Success! Reloading the privilege tables will ensure that all changes made so far will take effect immediately. Reload privilege tables now? [Y/n] Y <---- Type Y then press the ENTER KEY. ... Success! Cleaning up... All done! If you've completed all of the above steps, your MariaDB installation should now be secure. Thanks for using MariaDB!
Run MariaDB Database Tables Upgrade Tool
For users who have upgraded from a previous version of MariaDB, you should use the following steps and run the tool designed to check your tables and fix any issues with the version upgrade.
Run the following command to begin the upgrade, or check that your database tables are ok.
I would recommend running this command regardless. As you can see above, if it has been done already, it will state it; if not, you will get a long printout of the tables that will be checked and updated accordingly for MariaDB 10.9 compatibility.
How to Remove (Uninstall) MariaDB 10.9
If you no longer wish to use MariaDB and want to remove it in full, execute the following command:
sudo apt autoremove mariadb-server mariadb-client --purge -y
Note that this will delete MariaDB, including all database data added with the –purge flag. Do not use the purge end flag if you wish to keep the data.
Lastly, remove the repository source list using the following command.
sudo rm /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mariadb.list
Comments and Conclusion
As any database administrator knows, performance is essential. Whether running a simple website or a powerful e-commerce platform, your users expect fast response times and smooth operation. That’s why it’s crucial to stay up-to-date on the latest software releases, and that’s why MariaDB is worth paying attention to. The company has been releasing new branches quickly lately, and while the more minor releases are only supported for up to one year, the benefits in terms of performance may be worth upgrading for. So if you’re looking for ways to improve your database performance, keep an eye on MariaDB’s latest releases – it might just be time for an upgrade.